Using the Frayer Model

The Frayer Model is a graphic organizer that helps students understand key concepts such as photosynthesis, evaporation, chemical change, etc. This strategy can be particularly helpful for unpacking the nominalizations that pepper a lot of scientific prose—nouns that sum up complex processes or concepts (like radiation, ionization, eutrophication, catalyzation, etc.).

The word to be studied goes in the center of the model, with four quadrants around it where students write a definition, describe characteristics of the concept, and list examples and non-examples. The non-examples can be helpful because a process or entity is defined as much by what it isn't as by what it is.

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The Reading to Learn in Science Team



Development of Reading to Learn in Science was led by Jonathan Osborne (Stanford University) through a SERP collaboration. Support for Reading to Learn in Science was provided by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education through grant number R305F100026. The information provided does not represent views of the funders.

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Reading to Learn in Science